Категория: Литература


Автор: Юсуфова Лилия Георгиевна


LANGUAGE Yusufova L.G. Email: Yusufova690@scientifictext.ru



Abstract: the article considers writing as a learning tool in the study of a foreign language. Writing and written speech in the methodology of teaching a foreign language act not only as a means of learning, but more and more as the goal of teaching a foreign language. Writing in the methodology of teaching a foreign language act not only as a means of learning, but more and more as the goal of teaching a foreign language. Writing is a technical component of writing. Written speech along with speaking is the so-called productive (expressive) type of speech activity and is expressed in the fixation of a certain content by graphic signs.


Юсуфова Лилия Георгиевна - преподаватель, кафедра практического курса английского языка, Джизакский государственный педагогический институт, г. Джизак, Республика Узбекистан

Аннотация: в статье рассматривается письмо как средство обучения при изучении иностранного языка. Письмо и письменная речь в методике обучения иностранному языку выступают не только как средство обучения, но всё более как цель обучения иностранному языку. Письмо - это технический компонент письменной речи. Письменная речь наряду с говорением представляет собой так называемый продуктивный (экспрессивный) вид речевой деятельности и выражается в фиксации определённого содержания графическими знаками.

UDC 303.01

Writing is a technical component of written speech. Written speech, along with speaking, is the so-called productive (expressive) type of speech activity and is expressed in the fixation of a certain content by graphic signs. The psychophysical basis of written speech is the interaction of motor, visual, and auditory-speech motor analyzers. Reliance on all analyzers in training gives a much greater effect. According to psychologists, the material heard is assimilated by 10%, seen by 20%, heard and seen by 30%, recorded by 50%, when spoken by 70%, while teaching another by 90%. Psychologists believe that the basis of written speech is oral speech. Both speaking and writing can be traced from the plan (what to say) to the selection of the necessary means (what words are needed, how to combine them in the utterance) and to the realization of the plan by means of the language orally or in writing [1, p. 45].

As you know, writing is closely related to reading. In their system lies one graphic system of language. When writing, thoughts are encoded or encrypted using graphic symbols, while reading, they are decoded or decrypted.

If you correctly define the goals of teaching writing and writing, take into account the role of writing in the development of other skills, use exercises that are fully consistent with the goals, perform these exercises at an appropriate stage of training, then oral speech will gradually become richer and more logical.

Writing performs an auxiliary role in the development of grammar skills, in the performance of written tasks from simple cheating to tasks that require a creative approach, which creates the necessary conditions for memorization. Without reliance on writing, it is difficult for students to keep in memory lexical and grammatical material.

The entire system of linguistic and conditional speech exercises performed in writing refers to educational writing. Written statements, essays, creative dictations, drawing up plans and abstracts for communication on a given topic, writing a personal or business letter, that is, written stories on given situations, relate to communicative writing. In other words, it is a written speech exercise on a learned or related topic of conversational practice.

Written speech is considered as a creative communicative skill, understood as the ability to express your thoughts in writing. To do this, you need to have spelling and calligraphic skills, the ability to compositionally build and design a written work of speech composed in internal speech, as well as the ability to choose adequate lexical and grammatical units.

Writing training includes various types of speech exercises: speech exercises for teaching writing a message; written and speech exercises for working with printed text; written and speech exercises due to the process of reading, listening, and verbal communication.

When perceiving foreign speech by ear (listening), students can make notes:

1) compile a summary of the audio text according to a previously proposed plan (for keywords);
2) make recordings of the printed reference signals while listening to the audio text;
3) in accordance with a given communicative situation (task), select information from the audio text and record it [2, p. 67].

You can use a free dictation. In this case, the teacher reads the audio text in paragraphs, the students write down what they remember; to facilitate the task, a plan or keywords are given in advance.

When perceiving written language, students compose a list of questions for discussion with a real or imagined interlocutor, abstracts, select a written lecture on cards, and compose codograms, tables for oral communication on a specific topic (problem) or situation.

The practice of writing allows you to arrange for printed text or audio text from memory, according to plan, or to make written proposals to solve a specific issue or problem. A series of lessons on the topic ends with a home composition (self-dictation - a written retelling of part of the text or the entire text).

The ability to express your thoughts in a written language in a foreign language should be developed consistently and continuously. To solve this problem, there are a number of exercises of a reproductive and productive nature. All exercises are performed in writing. Interest, for example, are such tasks:

- restore the beginning and end of the story;

- restore the dialogue on separate "guiding" remarks;

- change the type of text (message to talk, dialogue to description);

- Describe the ambiguous situation in various texts and dialogs;

- Explain the contradiction between textual and illustrative information;

- Answer writing, telephone, conversation, etc.;

- select the keywords that lead to a certain previously known result, etc. [3, p. 59].

In the modern methodology for teaching writing and writing in a foreign language, the so-called "creative writing" has spread. "Creative writing" means exercises of a productive nature of varying degrees of complexity, varied in form and content, often in a playful way. Using "creative writing" methodologists pose specific questions: when to write, how much and for what purpose? will writing give pleasure and to whom? etc.

Distinctive features of these exercises are that they are carried out without fail in writing, in terms of content they are verbal creative or semi-creative in nature, interesting and fascinating for both students and teachers. Poems of famous poets are played, monograms are used, funny stories are collectively written, and letters are written to fictional characters.

We should not forget the three most important conditions when introducing creative writing in the classroom: learning objectives, principles, teaching methods and techniques, as well as educational control.

Writing a letter is a very successful form of exercises that are multifunctional in nature. To learn how to write a letter, you need to start with a series of speech exercises. At the first stage, exercises can be offered for memorizing speech formulas, clichés used in a letter, forms of a written appeal to the addressee, ways to express gratitude, confirm receipt of a letter, hope for an early reply, etc. This is followed by a review of the texts of letters, determination of the schemes of various letters, the allocation of individual phrases, supporting thoughts, keywords. Students analyze the texts of letters, characterize their authors, determine the nature of the letter (personal, family, business, problematic; writing with thanks, congratulations, invitations, etc.), analyze the means of expressing thoughts in letters of different styles and characters, means of transition from one thought to another, etc.

At the second stage, you can offer to draw up a writing plan using sample phrases and keywords. Contact forms and other clichés should correspond to the content, structure and style of writing.

At the next stage of work, students are invited to draw up collective writing, then thematic letters on given situations, letters of a different dark nature (personal, family, and business), writing a response to a request or a recipient&s request, writing initiative or writing an answer on a specific issue per calculation to a specific recipient. It is possible to compose letters to different recipients with different target settings, but with the same content or with changes to the same message text. It should work on the compilation of questions to the addressee, determine their place in the letter.

References / Список литературы

1. Galskova N.D., Gez N.I. Theory of teaching foreign languages: Linguodidactics and methodology: Textbook. - M.: Publishing Center "Academy", 2004. P. 45.
2. Milrud R. Methods of teaching foreign written language. New pedagogical and information technologies / M., 1999. P. 67.
3. Passov E.S. The main issues of teaching foreign speech. Voronezh: Voronezh state. Ped. Institute, 1974. 164 p.
written speech writing training tool speech activity conditional speech exercises perception of written speech ПИСЬМЕННАЯ РЕЧЬ ПИСЬМО СРЕДСТВО ОБУЧЕНИЯ РЕЧЕВОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ
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