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ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЕ ЗАКУПКИ ИННОВАЦИОННОЙ ПРОДУКЦИИ И ПОЛИТИКА ИМПОРТОЗАМЕЩЕНИЯ

Автор: Бирюков Андрей Андреевич

ECONOMICS /

ECONOMICS

УДК 338.24

Бирюков Андрей Андреевич

Аспирант кафедры управления государственными и муниципальными закупками

Московского городского университета управления

Правительства Москвы DOI: 10.24411/2520-6990-2020-11669 ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЕ ЗАКУПКИ ИННОВАЦИОННОЙ ПРОДУКЦИИ И ПОЛИТИКА

ИМПОРТОЗАМЕЩЕНИЯ

Biryukov Andrey

Postgraduate of management of state and municipal procurement department of the

Moscow Metropolitan Governance University

PUBLIC PROCUREMENT OF INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS AND IMPORT SUBSTITUTION POLICY

Аннотация

В статье рассматривается роль института государственных закупок в системе мер по решению проблем импортозамещения.

Автор разделяет позицию экспертов Европейской Комиссии по отношению к государственному заказу на инновации и дает определения понятиям "Pre-Commercial Procurement" и "Public Procurement of Innovative Solutions".

Сегодня далеко не все страны можно назвать инновационными. В соответствии с рейтингом Глобальный инновационный индекс 2019 (Global Innovation Index 2019), разработанным парижской школой INSEAD совместно с Интернет порталом WorldBusiness, Россия занимает 46-е место из 129 стран, включенных в данный рейтинг.

Переход России к инновационной экономике - это достаточно длительный процесс. На этом пути предстоит решить ряд проблем, которые накапливались десятилетиями. Данные проблемы необходимо решать комплексно, и государству в этом процессе должна быть отведена ключевая роль.

Abstract

The article considers the role of the Institute of public procurement in the system of measures to solve the problems of import substitution.

The author shares the position of experts of the European Commission in relation to the state order for innovations and defines the concepts "Pre-Commercial Procurement" and "Public Procurement of Innovative Solutions".

Today, not all countries can be called innovative. According to the Global Innovation Index 2019 rating, developed by the INSEAD school of Paris in conjunction with the internet portal WorldBusiness, Russia ranks 46th out of 129 countries included in this rating.

Russia&s transition to an innovative economy is a fairly long process. Along the way, we will have to solve a whole set of problems that have been accumulating for decades. These problems must be addressed comprehensively, and the state must play a key role in this process.

The analysis of foreign legislation in the field of public procurement shows that the concepts of "state order for innovation" and "state purchase of innovative products" are not directly used in the normative acts of Western countries, despite their widespread use in scientific and analytical literature.

First of all, this is due to the fact that the main task of foreign public procurement systems is not to ensure the innovation of purchased products as such, but to most effectively meet state (public) needs and promote innovative development by purchasing products that meet increased requirements for functional, quality and consumer characteristics, energy intensity of production and operation, safety of production, consumption and disposal processes for humans and the environment.

At the same time experts of the European Commission distinguish two types of state orders for innovations [1]:

1. Pre-Commercial Procurement (PCP) - orders for the implementation of applied research and development, development of a solution, a prototype, a limited batch of prototypes of a product (service). PCP, as a rule, involves full state funding of problem-oriented research and development necessary for specific state (public) needs. At the same time, the customer often

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simultaneously finances several projects that offer alternative solutions to one problem, until they can be convinced of the advantages of one project (scientific approach, technological solution) and refuse to finance others.

2. Public Procurement of Innovative Solutions (PPI) - purchases of a newly developed product or shared financing of object-oriented applied research on the development of an innovative product on the terms of a public-private partnership with the developer and/or other potential consumers. Through PPI, the state not only meets its needs for new products, but also acts, as a rule, as a "first buyer", thus leveling market failures.

According to experts of the Organization for economic cooperation and development, in the United States, the share of Federal government orders for innovation (including both PCP and PPI) in the total volume of Federal government orders over the past decade is on average more than 11%, for the EU (taking into account orders from national governments and supranational structures), the same indicator is on average close to 165 [2]. In Russia, this figure is 6% [3].

As world experience shows, the following conditions must be met in order to form an innovative economy:

- creation of an integrated national innovation system;

- formation of an adequate regulatory framework that supports innovative development;

- creation of an effective mechanism for financing innovative development;

- updating and active accumulation of intellectual potential of society.

Today, not all countries can be called innovative. According to the rating developed by the Paris school INSEAD in conjunction with the internet portal WorldBusiness, the TOP 10 most innovative countries in 2019 looks like this [4]:

1. Switzerland
2. Sweden
3. United States of America
4. Netherlands
5. United Kingdom
6. Finland
7. Denmark
8. Singapore
9. Germany
10. Israel

According to the Global innovation index 2019, Russia remained in the same position and took 46th place out of 129 countries included in this rating. Only Moscow among all Russian cities was included in the rating of the most innovative cities in the world (33 rd place out of 100).

Russia&s transition to an innovative economy is a fairly long process. Along the way, we will have to solve a whole range of problems that have been accumulating for decades, including such as:

- problems with the development of innovation infrastructure;

- increasing aging and technological backwardness of fixed assets, insufficient readiness of enterprises to implement innovations;

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- lack of qualified personnel at all levels of production from workers to senior management;

- the state of fundamental science as a result of chronic underfunding and stagnation of applied (branch) science;

- insufficient interaction between universities and enterprises;

- inefficient mechanisms for financing innovative projects and small innovative firms.

These problems must be addressed comprehensively, and the state must play a key role in this process. To this end, in 2018, the Government Commission for economic modernization and innovative development of Russia was established. It&s competence includes defining priority areas and mechanisms for economic modernization and innovative development, including the development of state support measures, forms and methods of state regulation in this area of activity [5].

As for Russia, it should be noted that at the present stage, one of the priorities of the country&s economic development is the implementation of the policy of import substitution in key industries.

The main documents of strategic planning in the field of import substitution can be considered industry plans approved by the Ministry of Industry and Trade of Russian Federation for import substitution in 19 civil industries [6].

Additional measures to implement the policy of import substitution are, on the one hand, measures to develop domestic production, on the other - to restrict imports.

As foreign experience shows the following mechanisms of the contract system are most often used in terms of import restrictions:

- preferences for national producers in the field of public procurement;

- bans and restrictions on government purchases of imported products.

Currently, the import substitution policy in Russia is implemented not only at the national level, but also at the union level within the framework of economic cooperation with the EAEU countries. For example, the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation, together with the Eurasian Economic Commission, is preparing a special program to replace supplies from abroad with products produced in the union. The potential for replacing foreign goods with local (primarily Russian) goods is at least $ 4 billion.

Thus, the main task of the contract system in the context of industrial modernization and implementation of import substitution policy is to stimulate technological (product and technological) innovations in industry through public procurement mechanisms, primarily in sectors focused on public demand. At the same time, it is impossible to solve the problems of import substitution without an effective contract procurement system, which must be integrated into the system of institutions and mechanisms of scientific, technical, innovation and industrial policy.

References:

[1] Peca V. Demand driven innovation through public procurement // European Commission, 2012. URL: http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/ict/pcp/docs/berlin-viorel.pdf

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[2] Appelt S. Measuring public procurement of RD and innovation // Demand-driven innovation through public procurement: Pre-commercial Procurement and Public Procurement of Innovative Solutions, Berlin, 21-22 March 2013. URL: http: http://cordis.eu-ropa.eu/fp7/ict/pcp/docs/berlin-session8-appelt.pdf

[3] Statistical information: Federal State Statistic Service. URL: http://www.gks.ru

[4] Global Innovation Index 2019, 12th edition, Cornell University, INSEAD, World Intellectual Property Organization, 2019. URL: https://www.globalin-novationindex.org/gii-2019-report

[5] Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of 10.09.2018 No.1078 "On the government Commission for economic modernization and innovative development of the Russian Federation

and amendments to certain acts of the Government of the Russian Federation" (together with the "Regulations on the government Commission for economic modernization and innovative development of the Russian Federation") "ConsultantPlus". URL: http://www.consultant.ru/

[6] Orders of the Ministry of Industry and Trade of Russian Federation from 30.09.2019 № 3638, from 22.07.2019 No.2646, from 16.04.2019 No.1327, from 01.03.2019 No.580, from 30.01.2019 No.229, from 25.06.2018 No.2441, from 29.05.2018 No.2025, from 25.04.2018 No.1665, from 14.12.2017 No.4414, from 30.09.2016 No.№ 3510, from 31.05.2015 No.647, 648, 650, 655, 656, 659, 660, 662, 663 "Consultant-Plus". URL: http://www.consultant.ru/

государственные закупки инновационный продукт инновационная экономика импортозамещение государственный заказ на инновации Глобальный инновационный индекс. public procurement innovative product innovative economy import substitution
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