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Автор: Мухташамова Парвина Захитовна


TYPES OF SPEECH ACTIVITY Mukhtashamova P.Z. Email: Mukhtashamova690@scientifictext.ru


Abstract: in this article there is revealed the essence of the functional approach to learning the grammatical side of speech. The main goal of teaching a foreign language is to develop the ability of students to use it as a multifunctional means of communication. Therefore, each teacher should strive to achieve grammatical correctness of students& speech. Following from the foregoing, the actuality of the topic we see in the need to increase motivation to study the grammar of a foreign language. Therefore, the purpose of work is to highlight the problem of the need for a teacher to observe a strict sequence of methodological actions for the greatest efficiency of work on the formation of grammar skills in students.


Мухташамова Парвина Захитовна - преподаватель, кафедра практических аспектов языка, Узбекский государственный университет мировых языков, г. Ташкент, Республика Узбекистан

Аннотация: в данной статье раскрывается сущность функционального подхода к изучению грамматической стороны речи. Основной целью обучения иностранному языку является развитие у студентов способности использовать его как многофункциональное средство общения. Поэтому каждый учитель должен стремиться к достижению грамматической правильности речи учащихся. Исходя из вышеизложенного, актуальность темы мы видим в необходимости повышения мотивации к изучению грамматики иностранного языка. Поэтому цель работы состоит в том, чтобы осветить проблему необходимости для учителя соблюдать строгую последовательность методологических действий для наибольшей эффективности работы по формированию грамматических навыков у студентов. Ключевые слова: грамматическая сторона речи, творческое усвоение, языковая структура, грамматические термины, учебные заведения, речевая деятельность, разговорные навыки.

One of the main tasks of teaching a foreign language at school is the solution of such an important problem as the development of students& independent work, orienting them towards active creative assimilation of material, the ability to think logically, and quickly make independent decisions.

Grammar is the area of language where the level of proficiency in the above-mentioned skills is most clearly manifested. Grammar is also a language structure and turns it into speech. The study of the grammatical aspect is inevitable when mastering a foreign language. However, in turn, mastering the grammar of any language causes many

difficulties, which are exacerbated by grammatical terms, rules, and an infinite number of exceptions. Not all this usually delights most students in educational institutions [2, p. 78].

Grammar skills are components of different types of speech activity and differ from each other as much as these types of speech communication are different. Therefore, we first determine the main types of grammatical skills in speaking and writing.

Grammatical speaking skills are understood to mean stably correct and automated, communicatively motivated use of grammatical phenomena in oral speech. Such possession of the grammatical means of the language is based on dynamic speech stereotypes of the form in unity with their meaning, "sound and meaning". Thus, the main qualities of a grammatical speaking skill are automation and integrity in performing grammatical operations, the unity of form and meanings, situational and communicative conditioning of its functioning.

Grammatical skills that provide correct and automated shaping and the use of words in oral speech in a given language can be called morphological speech skills. In English, these include the skills of the correct use in oral speech of personal endings and verb forms.

Speech grammatical skills that ensure the consistently correct and automated arrangement of words in all types of sentences in English in oral speech, in accordance with the linguistic directions, can be defined as syntactic speech skills, i.e., skills in mastering the basic syntactic schemes (stereotypes) of sentences.

Morphological and syntactic speech writing skills with perfect language proficiency have the same mechanisms as oral speech skills with, however, the addition that is caused by the written form of speech, i.e., graphic and spelling skills.

These skills differ from oral speech skills primarily in that they are more discursive analytical in nature due to the specifics of the written form of speech. The process of fixing a work of speech on a letter, in contrast to the process of generating speech in an oral form, allows you to return to written, stop on it, analyze, correct, clarify using spelling grammar rules. Let us dwell on the characterization of grammatical skills in receptive types of speech activity [1, p. 57].

Receptive grammar skills are understood as automated actions for recognizing and understanding grammatical information (morphological forms and syntactic constructions) in written and oral text. Since the reception of oral and written text can take place both with active and passive knowledge of the language material, receptive grammar skills should be classified into receptive-active and receptive-passive grammar reading and auditing skills. It follows from the foregoing that the term "receptive skills" cannot be identified only with the term "passive skills", they can also be receptive-active (when reading and listening to a text whose material students actively know).

Receptive-active grammatical skills auditing are based on automated speech communications of auditory-speech-motor images of grammatical phenomena and their meanings. Receptive-active grammatical reading skills are based on the relationship of visual-graphic and speech-motor images of these phenomena with their meanings. These connections are manifested in the automation of the process of perception and non-translatability (immediacy) of understanding of the read (audited) text and grammatical information contained in it, determined by the level of development of individual speech experience in these receptive types of speech activity, i.e., experience in reading and auditing [3, p. 45].

The degree of perfection of individual speech experience is expressed in the presence of strong and developed auditory-speech-motor and visual images with their significance in the long-term speech memory of a person.

Along with active-receptive speech grammar skills, students should also formulate passive-receptive skills (within the framework of passively assimilated grammatical material). These skills include:

1) the skills of recognition and understanding of grammatical phenomena in the text on the basis of images in the visual memory created in the process of formation and development of reader experience;
2) discursive-operational language grammatical skills of the analysis of grammatical information of the text.

The first type of grammatical skills is formed in the process of abundant easy reading, the second - as a result of reading difficult grammatically texts or places of text and the use of elements of the analysis of grammatical phenomena.

The characteristic of grammatical skills would be incomplete if we do not mention language grammatical skills, which are understood as discursive and analytical skills in handling grammatical material (inflection and word placement skills), formed and executed on the basis of grammatical knowledge in the process of performing language exercises.

Like speech grammar skills of the same name, they can be receptive (when recognizing grammatical phenomena in written and oral text), they can also be productive and can be used mainly in written speech, less often in speaking, as a background component.

For language grammatical skill, discursiveness, non-communicativeness, and non-situationality of its functioning are characteristic. This skill can be attributed to the skills that in the psychological literature are called "mental", "intellectual".

The need for a number of reasons explains the formation of a language skill in high school, among which are the following. Firstly, language skills can act as "spare" in the event of a failure of a speech grammatical skill (when forgetting, during de-automation, in case of malfunctions in speech, expressed in grammatical errors) or its insufficient automation. For example, a student finds it difficult to use this (necessary) personal ending of a verb and "reconstructs" it using a language action based on the rule. Secondly, the language skill is part of the mechanism that controls the correctness of the speech action by the speaker himself, and if it is erroneously performed, it provides error correction. Third, parallel forms of linguistic and verbal grammar skills provide a conscious, indicative basis for the creation of verbal skills.

References / Список литературы

1. Melnikova G.T. "A study of the comparative effectiveness of various approaches to teaching foreign grammar". M., 1980. P. 57.
2. Shatilov S.F. "Theoretical foundations of teaching methods for the grammatical aspect of foreign language speech." In the collection "General Methods of Teaching Foreign Languages". Reader / comp. Leontiev A.A. M. Russian language, 1991. P. 78.
3. Shcherba L.V. Language system and speech activity. M., 1974. Vitlin J.L. "Modern problems of teaching grammar of foreign language" // Foreign languages at school, 2000. № 5. P. 45.
grammatical side of speech creative assimilation language structure grammatical terms educational institutions speech activity speaking skills ГРАММАТИЧЕСКАЯ СТОРОНА РЕЧИ ТВОРЧЕСКОЕ УСВОЕНИЕ ЯЗЫКОВАЯ СТРУКТУРА
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